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The glans head of the human clitoris is roughly the size and shape of a pea, and is estimated to have about 8, sensory nerve endings. Sexological , medical, and psychological debate have focused on the clitoris, [4] and it has been subject to social constructionist analyses and studies.

Knowledge of the clitoris is significantly impacted by cultural perceptions of the organ. Studies suggest that knowledge of its existence and anatomy is scant in comparison with that of other sexual organs, and that more education about it could help alleviate social stigmas associated with the female body and female sexual pleasure; for example, that the clitoris and vulva in general are visually unappealing, that female masturbation is taboo , or that men should be expected to master and control women's orgasms.

The plural forms are clitorises in English and clitorides in Latin. The Latin genitive is clitoridis , as in " glans clitoridis ".

In medical and sexological literature, the clitoris is sometimes referred to as "the female penis" or pseudo-penis , [14] and the term clitoris is commonly used to refer to the glans alone; [15] partially because of this, there have been various terms for the organ that have historically confused its anatomy.

In mammals, sexual differentiation is determined by the sperm that carries either an X or a Y male chromosome. The clitoris develops from a phallic outgrowth in the embryo called the genital tubercle.

Initially undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a clitoris or penis during the development of the reproductive system depending on exposure to androgens which are primarily male hormones.

The clitoris forms from the same tissues that become the glans and shaft of the penis, and this shared embryonic origin makes these two organs homologous different versions of the same structure.

If exposed to testosterone, the genital tubercle elongates to form the penis. The urogenital sinus persists as the vestibule of the vagina , the two urogenital folds form the labia minora, and the labioscrotal swellings enlarge to form the labia majora, completing the female genitalia.

The clitoris contains external and internal components. It consists of the glans , the body which is composed of two erectile structures known as the corpora cavernosa , and two crura "legs".

It has a hood formed by the labia minora inner lips. It also has vestibular or clitoral bulbs. The frenulum of clitoris is a frenulum on the under-surface of the glans and is created by the two medial parts of the labia minora.

The shaft supports the glans, and its shape can be seen and felt through the clitoral hood. Research indicates that clitoral tissue extends into the vagina's anterior wall.

The clitoris, vestibular bulbs, labia minora, and urethra involve two histologically distinct types of vascular tissue tissue related to blood vessels , the first of which is trabeculated , erectile tissue innervated by the cavernous nerves.

The trabeculated tissue has a spongy appearance ; along with blood, it fills the large, dilated vascular spaces of the clitoris and the bulbs. Beneath the epithelium of the vascular areas is smooth muscle.

Highly innervated , the glans exists at the tip of the clitoral body as a fibro -vascular cap, [27] and is usually the size and shape of a pea, although it is sometimes much larger or smaller.

The clitoral glans, or the entire clitoris, is estimated to have about 8, sensory nerve endings. Although the clitoral body becomes engorged with blood upon sexual arousal , erecting the clitoral glans , some sources describe the clitoral glans and labia minora as composed of non-erectile tissue; this is especially the case for the glans.

Other descriptions of the glans assert that it is composed of erectile tissue and that erectile tissue is present within the labia minora. The two corpora forming the clitoral body are surrounded by thick fibro-elastic tunica albuginea, literally meaning "white covering", connective tissue.

The clitoral body extends up to several centimeters before reversing direction and branching, resulting in an inverted "V" shape that extends as a pair of crura "legs".

Ending at the glans of the clitoris, the tip of the body bends anteriorly away from the pubis. There is no identified correlation between the size of the clitoral glans, or clitoris as a whole, and a woman's age, height, weight, use of hormonal contraception , or being post-menopausal , although women who have given birth may have significantly larger clitoral measurements.

A study concluded that the total clitoral length, including glans and body, is The clitoral hood projects at the front of the labia commissure , where the edges of the labia majora outer lips meet at the base of the pubic mound; it is partially formed by fusion of the upper part of the external folds of the labia minora inner lips and covers the glans and external shaft.

The vestibular bulbs are more closely related to the clitoris than the vestibule because of the similarity of the trabecular and erectile tissue within the clitoris and bulbs, and the absence of trabecular tissue in other genital organs, with the erectile tissue's trabecular nature allowing engorgement and expansion during sexual arousal.

When engorged with blood, they cuff the vaginal opening and cause the vulva to expand outward. The clitoris and penis are generally the same anatomical structure, although the distal portion or opening of the urethra is absent in the clitoris of humans and most other animals.

The idea that males have clitorises was suggested in by researcher Josephine Lowndes Sevely, who theorized that the male corpora cavernosa a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the penis during penile erection are the true counterpart of the clitoris.

She argued that "the male clitoris" is directly beneath the rim of the glans penis , where the frenulum of prepuce of the penis a fold of the prepuce is located, and proposed that this area be called the "Lownde's crown.

It also has a shaft that is attached to the glans. The male corpora cavernosa are homologous to the corpus cavernosum clitoridis the female cavernosa , the bulb of penis is homologous to the vestibular bulbs beneath the labia minora, the scrotum is homologous to the labia majora, and the penile urethra and part of the skin of the penis is homologous to the labia minora.

Upon anatomical study, the penis can be described as a clitoris that has been mostly pulled out of the body and grafted on top of a significantly smaller piece of spongiosum containing the urethra.

For example, while some sources estimate that the human penis has 4, nerve endings, [3] other sources state that the glans or the entire penile structure have the same amount of nerve endings as the clitoral glans, [42] or discuss whether the uncircumcised penis has thousands more than the circumcised penis or is generally more sensitive.

Some sources state that in contrast to the glans penis, the clitoral glans lacks smooth muscle within its fibrovascular cap and is thus differentiated from the erectile tissues of the clitoris and bulbs; additionally, bulb size varies and may be dependent on age and estrogenization.

The thin corpus spongiosum of the penis runs along the underside of the penile shaft, enveloping the urethra, and expands at the end to form the glans.

It partially contributes to erection, which are primarily caused by the two corpora cavernosa that comprise the bulk of the shaft; like the female cavernosa, the male cavernosa soak up blood and become erect when sexually excited.

The clitoris has an abundance of nerve endings, and is the human female's most sensitive erogenous zone and generally the primary anatomical source of human female sexual pleasure.

Sexual stimulation, including arousal, may result from mental stimulation, foreplay with a sexual partner , or masturbation , and may lead to orgasm.

Due to the glans's high sensitivity, direct stimulation to it is not always pleasurable; instead, direct stimulation to the hood or the areas near the glans are often more pleasurable, with the majority of women preferring to use the hood to stimulate the glans, or to have the glans rolled between the lips of the labia, for indirect touch.

This might be with or without manual penetration of the vagina, while other women enjoy having the entire area of the vulva caressed.

As the clitoris's external location does not allow for direct stimulation by sexual penetration, any external clitoral stimulation while in the missionary position usually results from the pubic bone area, the movement of the groins when in contact.

As such, some couples may engage in the woman-on-top position or the coital alignment technique , a sex position combining the "riding high" variation of the missionary position with pressure-counterpressure movements performed by each partner in rhythm with sexual penetration, to maximize clitoral stimulation.

During sexual arousal, the clitoris and the whole of the genitalia engorge and change color as the erectile tissues fill with blood vasocongestion , and the individual experiences vaginal contractions.

This is what leads to clitoral erection. The clitoral glans doubles in diameter upon arousal, and, upon further stimulation, becomes less visible as it is covered by the swelling of tissues of the clitoral hood.

General statistics indicate that 70—80 percent of women require direct clitoral stimulation consistent manual, oral or other concentrated friction against the external parts of the clitoris to reach orgasm.

Prominent debate over the quantity of vaginal nerve endings began with Alfred Kinsey. Although Sigmund Freud 's theory that clitoral orgasms are a prepubertal or adolescent phenomenon and that vaginal or G-spot orgasms are something that only physically mature females experience had been criticized before, Kinsey was the first researcher to harshly criticize the theory.

Irvine stated that he "criticized Freud and other theorists for projecting male constructs of sexuality onto women" and "viewed the clitoris as the main center of sexual response".

He considered the vagina to be "relatively unimportant" for sexual satisfaction, relaying that "few women inserted fingers or objects into their vaginas when they masturbated".

Believing that vaginal orgasms are "a physiological impossibility" because the vagina has insufficient nerve endings for sexual pleasure or climax, he "concluded that satisfaction from penile penetration [is] mainly psychological or perhaps the result of referred sensation".

Masters and Johnson 's research, as well as Shere Hite 's, generally supported Kinsey's findings about the female orgasm.

They observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms have the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms.

On that basis, they argued that clitoral stimulation is the source of both kinds of orgasms, [93] reasoning that the clitoris is stimulated during penetration by friction against its hood.

Lombard Kelly], Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson, to mention just a few sources, there is no ignorance on the subject [of the female orgasm]," she stated in her article The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm.

She added, "There are, however, social reasons why this knowledge has not been popularized. We are living in a male society which has not sought change in women's role.

Supporting an anatomical relationship between the clitoris and vagina is a study published in , which investigated the size of the clitoris; Australian urologist Helen O'Connell, described as having initiated discourse among mainstream medical professionals to refocus on and redefine the clitoris, noted a direct relationship between the legs or roots of the clitoris and the erectile tissue of the clitoral bulbs and corpora, and the distal urethra and vagina while using magnetic resonance imaging MRI technology.

In , they published the first complete 3D sonography of the stimulated clitoris, and republished it in with new research, demonstrating the ways in which erectile tissue of the clitoris engorges and surrounds the vagina.

On the basis of their findings, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot, because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration.

They assert that since the front wall of the vagina is inextricably linked with the internal parts of the clitoris, stimulating the vagina without activating the clitoris may be next to impossible.

In their published study, the "coronal planes during perineal contraction and finger penetration demonstrated a close relationship between the root of the clitoris and the anterior vaginal wall".

The G-spot being analogous to the base of the male penis has additionally been theorized, with sentiment from researcher Amichai Kilchevsky that because female fetal development is the "default" state in the absence of substantial exposure to male hormones and therefore the penis is essentially a clitoris enlarged by such hormones, there is no evolutionary reason why females would have an entity in addition to the clitoris that can produce orgasms.

Whether the clitoris is vestigial , an adaptation , or serves a reproductive function has also been debated. It is not especially large, brightly colored, specifically shaped or selectively displayed during courtship.

He said the human clitoris "could have evolved to be much more conspicuous if males had preferred sexual partners with larger brighter clitorises" and that "its inconspicuous design combined with its exquisite sensitivity suggests that the clitoris is important not as an object of male mate choice, but as a mechanism of female choice.

While Miller stated that male scientists such as Stephen Jay Gould and Donald Symons "have viewed the female clitoral orgasm as an evolutionary side-effect of the male capacity for penile orgasm" and that they "suggested that clitoral orgasm cannot be an adaptation because it is too hard to achieve", [] Gould acknowledged that "most female orgasms emanate from a clitoral, rather than vaginal or some other , site" and that his nonadaptive belief "has been widely misunderstood as a denial of either the adaptive value of female orgasm in general, or even as a claim that female orgasms lack significance in some broader sense".

He said that although he accepts that "clitoral orgasm plays a pleasurable and central role in female sexuality and its joys," "[a]ll these favorable attributes, however, emerge just as clearly and just as easily, whether the clitoral site of orgasm arose as a spandrel or an adaptation".

He added that the "male biologists who fretted over [the adaptionist questions] simply assumed that a deeply vaginal site, nearer the region of fertilization, would offer greater selective benefit" due to their Darwinian , summum bonum beliefs about enhanced reproductive success.

Similar to Gould's beliefs about adaptionist views and that "females grow nipples as adaptations for suckling, and males grow smaller unused nipples as a spandrel based upon the value of single development channels", [] Elisabeth Lloyd suggested that there is little evidence to support an adaptionist account of female orgasm.

Chivers stated that "Lloyd views female orgasm as an ontogenetic leftover; women have orgasms because the urogenital neurophysiology for orgasm is so strongly selected for in males that this developmental blueprint gets expressed in females without affecting fitness" and this is similar to "males hav[ing] nipples that serve no fitness-related function.

At the conference for Canadian Society of Women in Philosophy , Nancy Tuana argued that the clitoris is unnecessary in reproduction; she stated that it has been ignored because of "a fear of pleasure.

It is pleasure separated from reproduction. That's the fear. The truth is that both are sexual and both are reproductive.

Modifications to the clitoris can be intentional or unintentional. They include female genital mutilation FGM , sex reassignment surgery for trans men as part transitioning , which may also include clitoris enlargement , intersex surgery , and genital piercings.

Those taking hormones or other medications as part of a transgender transition usually experience dramatic clitoral growth; individual desires and the difficulties of phalloplasty construction of a penis often result in the retention of the original genitalia with the enlarged clitoris as a penis analogue metoidioplasty.

In clitoridectomy , the clitoris may be removed as part of a radical vulvectomy to treat cancer such as vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia ; however, modern treatments favor more conservative approaches, as invasive surgery can have psychosexual consequences.

In reduction clitoroplasty, a common intersex surgery, the glans is preserved and parts of the erectile bodies are excised.

He stated that although "expectations can be standardized within these few parameters, operative techniques have not yet become homogeneous.

Investigators have preferred different operations for different ages of patients". Gender assessment and surgical treatment are the two main steps in intersex operations.

Later, it was understood that the clitoris glans and sensory input are important to facilitate orgasm," stated Atilla. The clitoral glans's epithelium "has high cutaneous sensitivity, which is important in sexual responses" and it is because of this that "recession clitoroplasty was later devised as an alternative, but reduction clitoroplasty is the method currently performed.

What is often referred to as " clit piercing " is the more common and significantly less complicated clitoral hood piercing.

Since clitoral piercing is difficult and very painful, piercing of the clitoral hood is more common than piercing the clitoral shaft, owing to the small percentage of people who are anatomically suited for it.

The triangle piercing is a very deep horizontal hood piercing, and is done behind the clitoris as opposed to in front of it.

For styles such as the Isabella , which pass through the clitoral shaft but are placed deep at the base, they provide unique stimulation and still require the proper genital build; the Isabella starts between the clitoral glans and the urethra, exiting at the top of the clitoral hood; this piercing is highly risky with regard to damage that may occur because of intersecting nerves.

Persistent genital arousal disorder PGAD results in a spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal in women, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire.

Drugs may cause or affect clitoral priapism. The drug trazodone is known to cause male priapism as a side effect, but there is only one documented report that it may have caused clitoral priapism, in which case discontinuing the medication may be a remedy.

Because PGAD is relatively rare and, as its own concept apart from clitoral priapism, has only been researched since , there is little research into what may cure or remedy the disorder.

With regard to historical and modern perceptions of the clitoris, the clitoris and the penis were considered equivalent by scholars for more than 2, years in all respects except their arrangement.

Ancient Greek and Roman sexuality additionally designated penetration as "male-defined" sexuality. The term tribas , or tribade , was used to refer to a woman or intersex individual who actively penetrated another person male or female through use of the clitoris or a dildo.

As any sexual act was believed to require that one of the partners be " phallic " and that therefore sexual activity between women was impossible without this feature, mythology popularly associated lesbians with either having enlarged clitorises or as incapable of enjoying sexual activity without the substitution of a phallus.

In , Charles Estienne was the first writer to identify the clitoris in a work based on dissection, but he concluded that it had a urinary function.

In , Falloppio stated, "Modern anatomists have entirely neglected it The average anatomist had difficulty challenging Galen's or Vesalius's research; Galen was the most famous physician of the Greek era and his works were considered the standard of medical understanding up to and throughout the Renaissance i.

In addition to Avicenna's naming it the albaratha or virga "rod" and Colombo's calling it sweetness of Venus, Hippocrates used the term columella "little pillar'" , and Albucasis , an Arabic medical authority, named it tentigo "tension".

The names indicated that each description of the structures was about the body and glans of the clitoris, but usually the glans.

While in Constantine 's treatise Liber de coitu , the clitoris is referred to a few times, Magnus gave an equal amount of attention to male and female organs.

Like Avicenna, Magnus also used the word virga for the clitoris, but employed it for the male and female genitals; despite his efforts to give equal ground to the clitoris, the cycle of suppression and rediscovery of the organ continued, and a 16th-century justification for clitoridectomy appears to have been confused by hermaphroditism and the imprecision created by the word nymphae substituted for the word clitoris.

Nymphotomia was a medical operation to excise an unusually large clitoris, but what was considered "unusually large" was often a matter of perception.

Thus the parts are cut". Caspar Bartholin , a 17th-century Danish anatomist, dismissed Colombo's and Falloppio's claims that they discovered the clitoris, arguing that the clitoris had been widely known to medical science since the second century.

Like Falloppio and Bartholin, De Graaf criticized Colombo's claim of having discovered the clitoris; his work appears to have provided the first comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy.

The accusations led to a sensational libel trial, which Billing eventually won; Philip Hoare reports that Billing argued that "as a medical term, 'clitoris' would only be known to the 'initiated', and was incapable of corrupting moral minds".

Concerning other beliefs about the clitoris, Hite and found that, during sexual intimacy with a partner, clitoral stimulation was more often described by women as foreplay than as a primary method of sexual activity, including orgasm.

They looked at the terms used to describe genitalia in the PsycINFO database from to and found that penis was used in 1, sources, vagina in , while clitoris was only mentioned in They additionally analyzed 57 books listed in a computer database for sex instruction.

The students were overwhelmingly educated to believe that the vagina is the female counterpart of the penis. The authors found that the students' belief that the inner portion of the vagina is the most sexually sensitive part of the female body correlated with negative attitudes toward masturbation and strong support for sexual myths.

A study reported that, among a sample of undergraduate students, the most frequently cited sources for knowledge about the clitoris were school and friends, and that this was associated with the least amount of tested knowledge.

Knowledge of the clitoris by self-exploration was the least cited, but "respondents correctly answered, on average, three of the five clitoral knowledge measures".

The authors stated that "[k]nowledge correlated significantly with the frequency of women's orgasm in masturbation but not partnered sex" and that their "results are discussed in light of gender inequality and a social construction of sexuality, endorsed by both men and women, that privileges men's sexual pleasure over women's, such that orgasm for women is pleasing, but ultimately incidental.

Clitoraid spokesperson Nadine Gary stated that the group's mission is to raise public awareness about the clitoris because it has "been ignored, vilified, made taboo, and considered sinful and shameful for centuries".

In , Odile Fillod created a 3D printable , open source, full-size model of the clitoris, for use in a set of anti-sexist videos she had been commissioned to produce.

Fillod was interviewed by Stephanie Theobald , whose article in The Guardian stated that the 3D model would be used for sex education in French schools, from primary to secondary level, from September onwards; [] this was not the case, but the story went viral across the world.

In , New York artist Sophia Wallace started work on a multimedia project to challenge misconceptions about the clitoris.

Based on O'Connell's research, Wallace's work emphasizes the sheer scope and size of the human clitoris. She says that ignorance of this still seems to be pervasive in modern society.

People are hungry to be able to talk about this," Wallace said. In , another project started in New York, street art that has since spread to almost cities: Clitorosity, a "community-driven effort to celebrate the full structure of the clitoris", combining chalk drawings and words to spark interaction and conversation with passers-by, which the team documents on social media.

Other projects listed by the BBC include Clito Clito, body-positive jewellery made in Berlin; Clitorissima , a documentary intended to normalize mother-daughter conversations about the clitoris; and a ClitArt festival in London, encompassing spoken word performances as well as visual art.

Significant controversy surrounds female genital mutilation FGM , [] [] with the World Health Organization WHO being one of many health organizations that have campaigned against the procedures on behalf of human rights , stating that "FGM has no health benefits" and that it is "a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes".

Female genital mutilation is carried out in several societies, especially in Africa, with 85 percent of genital mutilations performed in Africa consisting of clitoridectomy or excision, [] [] and to a lesser extent in other parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia, on girls from a few days old to mid-adolescent, often to reduce sexual desire in an effort to preserve vaginal virginity.

Although the clitoris exists in all mammal species, [] few detailed studies of the anatomy of the clitoris in non-humans exist. In females, this bone is known as the os clitoridis.

Although the bears have been described as having "a birth canal that runs through the clitoris rather than forming a separate vagina" a feature that is estimated to make up 10 to 20 percent of the bears' population , [] scientists state that female spotted hyenas are the only non- hermaphroditic female mammals devoid of an external vaginal opening, and whose sexual anatomy is distinct from usual intersex cases.

In spider monkeys , the clitoris is especially developed and has an interior passage, or urethra, that makes it almost identical to the penis, and it retains and distributes urine droplets as the female spider monkey moves around.

Scholar Alan F. Dixson stated that this urine "is voided at the bases of the clitoris, flows down the shallow groove on its perineal surface, and is held by the skin folds on each side of the groove".

The clitoris erects in squirrel monkeys during dominance displays, which indirectly influences the squirrel monkeys' reproductive success.

The clitoris of bonobos is larger and more externalized than in most mammals; [] Natalie Angier said that a young adolescent "female bonobo is maybe half the weight of a human teenager, but her clitoris is three times bigger than the human equivalent, and visible enough to waggle unmistakably as she walks".

Ethologist Jonathan Balcombe stated that female bonobos rub their clitorises together rapidly for ten to twenty seconds, and this behavior, "which may be repeated in rapid succession, is usually accompanied by grinding, shrieking, and clitoral engorgement"; he added that, on average, they engage in this practice "about once every two hours", and as bonobos sometimes mate face-to-face, "evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk has suggested that the position of the clitoris in bonobos and some other primates has evolved to maximize stimulation during sexual intercourse".

Many strepsirrhine species exhibit elongated clitorises that are either fully or partially tunneled by the urethra, including mouse lemurs , dwarf lemurs , all Eulemur species, lorises and galagos.

They are described as having "elongated, pendulous clitorises that are [fully] tunneled by a urethra". The urethra is surrounded by erectile tissue, which allows for significant swelling during breeding seasons, but this erectile tissue differs from the typical male corpus spongiosum.

During pregnancy, estrogen, A 4 , and testosterone levels are raised, but female fetuses are still "protected" from excess testosterone.

While female spotted hyenas are sometimes referred to as hermaphrodites or as intersex , [] and scientists of ancient and later historical times believed that they were hermaphrodites, [] [] [] modern scientists do not refer to them as such.

Wingfield stated that "the resemblance to male genitalia is so close that sex can be determined with confidence only by palpation of the scrotum".

In the females, this scrotum consists of soft adipose tissue. She added that the clitoris "extends away from the body in a sleek and slender arc, measuring, on average, over 17 cm from root to tip.

Just like a penis, [it] is fully erectile, raising its head in hyena greeting ceremonies, social displays, games of rough and tumble or when sniffing out peers".

Due to their higher levels of androgen exposure during fetal development, the female hyenas are significantly more muscular and aggressive than their male counterparts; social-wise, they are of higher rank than the males, being dominant or dominant and alpha , and the females who have been exposed to higher levels of androgen than average become higher-ranking than their female peers.

Subordinate females lick the clitorises of higher-ranked females as a sign of submission and obedience, but females also lick each other's clitorises as a greeting or to strengthen social bonds; in contrast, while all males lick the clitorises of dominant females, the females will not lick the penises of males because males are considered to be of lowest rank.

The urethra and vagina of the female spotted hyena exit through the clitoris, allowing the females to urinate, copulate and give birth through this organ.

In an action similar to pushing up a shirtsleeve, the "female retracts the [pseudo-penis] on itself, and creates an opening into which the male inserts his own penis".

A Baskin et al. The dorsal nerves penetrated the corporeal body and distally the glans in the hyena" and, in female hyenas, "the dorsal nerves fanned out laterally on the clitoral body.

Glans morphology was different in appearance in both sexes, being wide and blunt in the female and tapered in the male".

Many species of Talpid moles exhibit peniform clitorises that are tunneled by the urethra and are found to have erectile tissue, most notably species from the Talpa genus found in Europe.

Genetic studies have revealed that females have an XX genotype and do not have any translocated Y-linked genes.

DMRT1 , a gene that regulates development of Sertoli cells , was found to be expressed in female germ cells before meiosis, however no Sertoli cells were present in the fully-developed ovotestes.

Additionally, the female germ cells only enter meiosis postnatally, a phenomenon that has not been found in any other eutherian mammal.

Female European moles are highly territorial and will not allow males in to their territory outside of breeding season, the probable cause of this behavior being the high levels of testosterone secreted by the female ovotestes.

Researchers studying the peripheral and central afferent pathways from the feline clitoris concluded that "afferent neurons projecting to the clitoris of the cat were identified by WGA-HRP tracing in the S1 and S2 dorsal root ganglia.

An average of cells were identified on each side of the animal. The average cross sectional area of clitoral afferent neuron profiles was 1. The external phenotype and reproductive behavior of 21 freemartin sheep and two male pseudohermaphrodite sheep were recorded with the aim of identifying any characteristics that could predict a failure to breed.

The vagina's length and the size and shape of the vulva and clitoris were among the aspects analyzed. While the study reported that "a number of physical and behavioural abnormalities were detected," it also concluded that "the only consistent finding in all 23 animals was a short vagina which varied in length from 3.

In a study concerning the clitoral structure of mice, the mouse perineal urethra was documented as being surrounded by erectile tissue forming the bulbs of the clitoris.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Clit disambiguation. Female sex organ. The internal anatomy of the human vulva , with the clitoral hood and labia minora indicated as lines.

The clitoris extends from the visible portion to a point below the pubic bone. Location of 1 clitoral hood and 2 clitoral glans. Main articles: Genital modification and mutilation , Female genital mutilation , and Clitoromegaly.

See also: Vagina and vulva in art. Further information: Religious views on female genital mutilation and Clitoral hood reduction. The genitals are pressed tightly together while the partners move in a grinding motion.

Some rub their clitoris against their partner's pubic bone. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Online Etymology Dictionary. Nature Education. Retrieved 10 August American Academy of Family Physicians. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 18 August Chicago Women's Liberation Union.

Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 12 December The Stranger. Retrieved 6 May Experts Debate". Retrieved 28 November Scientist can't find it".

Retrieved 2 March University of Alberta. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 21 December Drug Enforcement Administration.

March Retrieved 7 November World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 30 July Bei beiden Geschlechtern entstehen in der indifferenten Phase zunächst:.

Der Genitalhöcker wächst bei beiden Geschlechtern zunächst in die Länge und wird somit zur Klitoris bzw. Beim weiblichen Fetus, fehlt das Testosteron und es bildet sich aus dem Genitalhöcker die Klitoris.

Der Sinus urogenitalis bleibt als Vestibulum vaginae offen und die beiden Genitalfalten bilden die kleinen Schamlippen, Labia minora.

Die Klitoris besteht aus zwei am Sitzbeinausschnitt, Arcus ischiadicus , befestigten Schwellkörperschenkeln, Crura clitoridis Singular: Crus clitoridis , die sich unter dem Arcus pubis zum Schaft, Corpus clitoridis , vereinen.

Das freie Ende ist zur Klitoriseichel, Glans clitoridis , erweitert, diese ist von der Klitorisvorhaut -haube , Praeputium clitoridis , bedeckt.

Durch ein Band, das Ligamentum suspensorium clitoridis , ist die Klitoris am Unterrand der Symphyse befestigt. Der Schwellkörper im Schaftbereich, Corpus cavernosum clitoridis , ist ein paarig angelegtes Organ von schwammartiger, kavernöser Beschaffenheit, welches sich in Richtung der Symphyse zum Corpus clitoridis bis hin zur Klitoriseichel vereinigt.

Die zwei parallelen Schwellkörper des Schaftes sind durch eine faserige kollagene Hülle, die Tunica albuginea , umgeben; diese Hülle vereinigt sich in Richtung zur Glans clitoridis mit der Klitorisvorhaut.

Die beiden auslaufenden kleinen Schamlippen formen die paarigen Frenula clitoridis und bilden eine medial verlaufende Weichteilfalte an der Unterseite der Klitoris.

Sie verläuft also von der kranialen Vereinigungsstelle der beiden kleinen Schamlippen zur Glans clitoridis. Die Glans clitoridis ist die Glans penis eher analog , also nicht strenggenommen homolog.

Wichtig bei der genauen Betrachtung ist zu wissen, dass die Glans clitoridis das vordere Ende des Corpus clitoridis ist, der den Corpora cavernosa penis entspricht, während sich die Glans penis , Corpus spongiosum penis , am oberen Ende des Harnröhrenschwellkörpers, Corpus cavernosum urethrae , befindet.

Glans und Crura enthalten beide kavernöses Gewebe und sind von einer festen Tunica albuginea umgeben.

Dem männlichen Corpus spongiosum entsprechen die Vorhofschwellkörper, Bulbi vestibuli , die zweigeteilt auf jeder Seite des urethralen und vaginalen Ausgangs sitzen.

Die arterielle Versorgung erfolgt über Äste der Arteria pudenda interna : die Arteria profunda clitoridis zieht zu den Klitorisschenkeln und die Arteria dorsalis clitoridis zur Klitoriseichel.

Die Vena dorsalis clitoridis führt das Blut der gesamten Klitoris in den Venenplexus um die Harnblase ab. Die Klitorisschwellkörper Corpora cavernosa sind erektiles Gewebe, welches aus glatten Muskelzellen und Bindegewebe besteht.

Die beiden Klitorisschenkel Crura clitoridis enthalten jeweils einen Schwellkörper das Corpus cavernosum clitoridis dextrum rechte Seite bzw. Diese Schwellkörper füllen sich mit Blut während der Klitoriserektion.

Dieses dichte Venengeflecht steht mit dem kavernösen Gewebe der Klitoris in Verbindung. Durch das Ligamentum suspensorium clitoridis ist die Klitoris am Unterrand der Symphyse aufgehängt.

Die Tunica albuginea umgibt die beiden Schwellkörperschenkel zur Aufrechterhaltung und Stabilisierung ihrer Form, es handelt es sich um eine Bindegewebsschicht aus faserreichem [9] Bindegewebe, das über die Corpora cavernosum clitoridis zur Glans clitoridis in das Praeputium clitoridis ausläuft.

Das parasympathische Nervensystem als efferenter Teil des vegetativen Reflexbogens führt durch sensible Afferenzen etwa der Mechanorezeptoren an den erogenen genitalen Zonen der Klitoris oder im vorderen vaginalen Bereich zu einer Vasokongestion der Schwellkörpergewebe.

Das sympathische Nervensystem als Efferenz erhöht den Tonus der glatten Muskulatur bzw. Die Bulbi vestibuli liegen als dichte Venengeflechte hufeisenförmig dem Vestibulum vaginae auf und stehen mit dem kavernösen Gewebe der Klitoris in Zusammenhang.

Beim Mann entwickelt sich aus dem Corpus spongiosum zum einen der Harnröhrenschwellkörper, Corpus spongiosum penis , aber auch die Eichel des Mannes, der Eichelschwellkörper, Corpus spongiosum glandis der eine Fortsetzung des Corpus spongiosum penis ist.

Das weibliche Schwellkörpersystem, welches sich aus dem Corpus spongiosum entwickelt, setzt sich, so legen einige anatomisch-histologische Untersuchungen nahe, zwischen der Scheidenvorderwand und der Blase als eine Zwischenschicht fort, es ist die sogenannte Halban-Faszie.

Nach ventral oder distal , von der Blase und der Vagina kommend, setzt er sich dann als Septum uretrovaginale zwischen der weiblichen Harnröhre und Vagina bzw.

Entwicklungsgeschichtlich sind die Schwellkörpersysteme in der Halban-Faszie dem Harnröhrenschwellkörper, Corpus spongiosum penis , der die Harnröhre im männlichen Penis umhüllt homolog.

Das muskulofasziale Bindegewebssystem des weiblichen Beckenbodens weist Durchgänge für den Enddarm , die Harn- und Geschlechtsorgane auf und steht topografisch in enger Beziehung zu den oben genannten Schwellkörpersystemen.

Die stärkste und umfangreichste dieser drei Muskel- und Faszienschichten [24] ist das Diaphragma pelvis , es ist die innerste, trichterförmige Schicht des Beckenbodens.

Das Diaphragma pelvis weist eine längsgerichtete, von dorsal nach ventral verlaufende Lücke, den Levatorenschlitz, für die Mündungen bzw.

Eingängen zu den Harn- und Geschlechtsorganen auf. Das Diaphragma urogenitale erstreckt sich von der Schambeinfuge, der Symphyse und den beiden Schambeinästen bis zu den Sitzbeinhöckern und bedeckt den Levatorenschlitz teilweise von unten unvollständig.

Das Diaphragma urogenitale weist ebenfalls eine Öffnung für Harnröhre und der Vagina auf. Bei der Frau bilden diese beiden eine achtförmige Muskelschlinge um Scheide und Analkanal.

Die Muskel des M. Hingegen stehen die M. Unter dem Einfluss männlicher Geschlechtshormone Androgene bildet sich bei männlichen Feten der Penis.

Die Hauptursache dafür sind hormonelle Störungen wie das polyzystische Ovarialsyndrom. Eine genaue Diagnose von ärztlicher Seite auf Basis objektiver Kriterien wird oft nicht getroffen.

Für diesen Eingriff liegt in der Regel jedoch keine medizinische Notwendigkeit vor. Auch in Fällen von Intersexualität kann unter den gleichen Voraussetzungen eine chirurgische Korrektur angebracht sein.

Intersexuelle Aktivisten fordern daher, eine derartige Operation erst dann durchzuführen, wenn der intersexuelle Mensch die Operation aus eigenem Willen möchte und ihr zustimmen kann.

Beim Geschlechtsverkehr und der damit verbundenen sexuellen Erregung tritt eine Kongestion am Scheidenvorhof auf, da sich hierbei die Bulbi vestibuli um den Scheidenvorhof, Vestibulum vaginae, herum verengen und sich die kleinen Schamlippen, Labia minora, dem eingeführten Penis annähern.

Ferner stehen die Bulbi vestibuli mit dem von vielen Hohlräumen durchzogenen kavernösen Gewebe der Klitoris in Verbindung.

Ihr venöser Abstrom wird durch den Druck im arteriellen System behindert und ein Druckanstieg in den Schwellkörpern ist die Folge.

Dennoch bleibt auch bei der kongestiven Blutfüllung des Corpus cavernosum clitoridis die Abknickung zwischen den beiden Crura clitoridis und dem Corpus clitoridis erhalten.

Biomechanisch nimmt man bei der Penetration durch den Penis an, dass sich der Zug an den kleinen, inneren Schamlippen auf die von ihnen zur Klitoris ziehenden Frenula clitoridis überträgt.

Hierdurch soll sich die Klitoriseichel, Glans clitoridis, dem penetrierenden Penis nähern und durch Friktionsbewegung die gemeinsame sexuelle Erregung bei der Kopulation verstärken.

Die gesamte Klitoris ist stark mit Nervenendungen ausgestattet. Das ganze System ist besonders berührungsempfindlich und empfänglich für sexuelle Reize.

Durch Stimulation der Klitoris gelangen die meisten Frauen zum Orgasmus. Insbesondere die Klitoriseichel, in der sich die Nervenstränge der zwei Schenkel treffen, ist hochempfindlich.

Winkelmann [32] fand in seinen histologischen Untersuchungen, dass die Klitoris neben den Fingerkuppen der am dichtesten innervierte Teil der Körperoberfläche des Menschen ist.

Dies gilt auch für andere Säugetiere , so zeigte sich im Tiermodell, dass der Nervus dorsalis clitoridis doppelt so viele Nervenfasern enthält wie der Nervus dorsalis penis.

Die Klitoris besitzt bis zu ca. Aber nicht nur die Anzahl der innervierenden Nerven an der Glans clitoridis ist höher als bei dem männlichen Penis, auch liegt die vibratorische Wahrnehmungsschwelle der Klitoris niedriger als die an der Glans penis.

Dabei steigen mit zunehmendem Alter der Frau die Empfindungsschwellen etwas an. Der Nervus dorsalis clitoridis ist ein Endast des Nervus pudendus aus dem Plexus sacralis S 1 —S 4 ; er versorgt sensibel die weibliche Klitoris.

Die Nerven kommen als Bestandteil des Nervus pudendus im Alcock-Kanal auf einer geschützten Bahn durch das Diaphragma urogenitale an der unteren Klitoris.

Der Nervus pudendus allgemein gesehen — im Speziellen der Nervus dorsalis clitoridis — hat eine wichtige Funktion im Bereich der klitoral-vulvären Afferenz wie auch für die Sphinkteren- und die circumvaginal-muskulären Efferenzen.

Ruffini-Körperchen , vor allem im Bereich Labia minora und der Klitorisvorhaut -haube , Praeputium clitoridis ; [40] Dehnungsrezeptor, d.

Meissner-Körperchen ; d. Vater-Pacini-Körperchen wurden im Ligamentum suspensorium clitoridis und im Corpus clitoridis , nicht aber im Glans clitoridis selbst identifiziert; [41] reagieren auf Beschleunigungen, schnell adaptierenden Rezeptoren, Vibrationsrezeptor.

Vier schematisch dargestellte Formen von freien Nervenendigungen [42].

Clit With regard to historical and modern perceptions of the clitoris, the clitoris and Clit penis were Teen blonde videos equivalent by scholars for more than Porno kostrnlos, years in all respects except their arrangement. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main, On the basis of their findings, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot, because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina Pressley maddox the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration. Later, it was understood that the clitoris glans and sensory input are important to facilitate orgasm," stated Atilla. In Penner, Todd C. Gender Lana rhoades vr -twitter and surgical treatment are the two main steps in intersex operations. 1440p porn urogenital sinus persists as the vestibule of the vaginathe two urogenital folds form the Elsa jean insta minora, and the labioscrotal swellings Clit to form the labia majora, completing the female genitalia. Dem männlichen Corpus spongiosum entsprechen die Vorhofschwellkörper, Bulbi vestibulidie zweigeteilt auf jeder Seite des Naked chi chi und vaginalen Ausgangs sitzen. Vier schematisch dargestellte Humiliated males von freien Nervenendigungen [42]. Sexual Development.

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